Arbitration Council, also known as the Council of Islamic Ideology (CII), is a prominent institution in Pakistan tasked with resolving disputes in accordance with Islamic principles. Established in 1962, the Arbitration Council plays a crucial role in providing an alternative mechanism for dispute resolution. This article provides an overview of the Arbitration Council in Pakistan, highlighting its formation, objectives, functions, and impact on the legal landscape.

Formation of the Arbitration Council:

The Arbitration Council was established under the Arbitration Act, 1961, with the objective of offering an Islamic alternative to court proceedings for resolving various matters. The council comprises renowned Islamic scholars, jurists, and experts in Islamic law, appointed by the government. Its composition ensures the application of Islamic principles and the adherence to religious guidelines in resolving disputes.

Objectives of the Arbitration Council:

The primary objectives of the Arbitration Council are to promote justice, harmony, and social cohesion by providing an Islamic framework for dispute resolution. It aims to address matters related to marriage, divorce, inheritance, and other civil issues in line with Islamic teachings. The council strives to create an environment that upholds Islamic values, protects the rights of individuals, and encourages amicable settlements.

Functions of the Arbitration Council:

The Arbitration Council in Pakistan performs several key functions, including:

Marriage-related Disputes: One of the significant areas of its jurisdiction is resolving disputes related to marriage, including divorce, dissolution of marriage, and reconciliation efforts between spouses.

Family-related Disputes: The council also addresses issues such as inheritance, guardianship, and maintenance within families, ensuring equitable solutions based on Islamic principles.

Advisory Role: The Arbitration Council serves as an advisory body to the government, providing guidance and recommendations on matters related to Islamic law and societal issues.

Harmonization of Laws: The council actively works towards harmonizing existing laws with Islamic principles, aiming to bridge any gaps and promote consistency in the legal system.

Impact on the Legal Landscape:

The Arbitration Council's existence has had a significant impact on the legal landscape in Pakistan. It provides an accessible and culturally appropriate platform for dispute resolution, particularly for matters deeply rooted in Islamic traditions and values. By offering an alternative to the formal court system, the council reduces the burden on the judiciary, promoting efficiency and timely resolution of cases. Moreover, its decisions and recommendations influence legal reforms and policy-making processes, ensuring the incorporation of Islamic principles in the country's legal framework.

Challenges and Criticisms:

While the Arbitration Council plays a crucial role in the dispute resolution process, it is not without challenges and criticisms. Some argue that the council's decisions may not always align with modern principles of equality and human rights. There have been concerns about the lack of female representation within the council, potentially affecting the resolution of women-centric issues. Furthermore, ensuring consistency and uniformity in the application of Islamic principles across the council's decisions remains an ongoing challenge.


The Arbitration Council in Pakistan serves as a vital institution for Islamic-based dispute resolution. By providing an alternative to traditional court proceedings, it offers individuals the opportunity to seek resolution in line

See Our Informational Link: Alternative Dispute Resolution in Pakistan